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Who Were the Twelve Patriarchs?

The word “patriarch” means a progenitor
(an originator of a line of descent).

The 12 Patriarchs are the 12 sons of Jacob:

Genesis 35:22-26
Now the sons of Jacob were twelve. 

The sons of Leah: Reuben (Jacob’s firstborn), Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun

The sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin

The sons of Bilhah, Rachel’s servant: Dan and Naphtali.   

The sons of Zilpah, Leah’s servant: Gad and Asher. These were the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Paddan-aram.

The tribes of Israel bore the names of Jacob’s sons, although Joseph’s two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, became two of the tribes instead of Joseph — so Joseph had a double portion through his two sons.  The tribe of Levi became priests, and as such were spread throughout the tribes of Israel to teach the people God’s ways.  The tribe of Levi had no single allocation of territory in the promised land, but were allocated Levitical cities with associated pasture land. 

Joshua 14:4
For the people of Joseph were two tribes, Manasseh and Ephraim. And no portion was given to the Levites in the land, but only cities to dwell in, with their pasturelands for their livestock and their substance.